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제목 [박사학위논문] 전환기 미얀마 이주청소년 노동자의 공교육 중도탈락 경험에 관한 질적연구
작성자 관리자 등록일 2017-05-28
조회 2688
파일
Doctoral Dissertation

Contextualizing Dropout Experiences of Youth Migrants in Transitional Myanmar
전환기 미얀마 이주청소년 노동자의 공교육 중도탈락 경험에 관한 질적연구

2017년 2월
서울대학교 대학원
협동과정 글로벌교육협력 전공
홍 문 숙 (Moon Suk HonG)


ABSTRACT

This doctoral dissertation addresses how the lives and learning of
youth migrants in Yangon are interwoven during the economic, political,
dramatic and cultural social transitions in the Republic of the Union of
Myanmar (Myanmar or Burma). It explores that first, multidimensional
drivers of youths' decisions on dropping out of school beyond economic
issues; second, the pathways of dropping out of school from youth's
experiences from the ethnographic and interpretative approach as well
as interplays between schooling as a social institution and individual
dropouts being evolved in between. And third, drawn from youth’s life
experiences within and outside of school, it re-theorise understanding
socio-cultural and educational aspects of school dropouts and further the
current phenomenon of Myanmar’s inequality in education.
By rooted in social anthropology and influenced by critical
sociology, Victor Tuner’s notions on Structure and Anti-Structure,
Liminality and Communitas are re-visited in order to contextualise the
shifting realities of life and learning of Yangon’s migrant Youth workers.
These theoretical lenses allowed to explore twelve research participants
to that collected and analysed the recent life histories before and after
dropping out of school as the basis for an understanding of their learning
inside and outside of formal schooling. This study has a strong focuses
on process of the twelve youth, rather the results of dropping out itself:
(i) Breaking away (separation), (ii) of being out of school and working
(being in liminal space) and (iii) seeking the possibilities for integration
(re-integration or separation).
It is argued that interplays of the two aspects - the Outer process
of poverty, structured failures from education systems and lack of
quality education and the Internal process of benevolence – which is
formed ideas of Dana and Sedana, Ana and Anade create space of
Myanmar’s unique space for liminality. In the micro-subjective
perspective. The major finding is mainly three folds. First, it is evident
that root causes of inequality in Myanmar's education also are operated
as a sociocultural issues. Formal education in Myanmar in the past can
be perceived as a political and social reproduction of disadvantages and
inequalities of Myanmar society itself. Thus, inequalities have been
being recycled through the education system and other social
institutions in Myanmar which is under the former governments that still
structurally lingers in contemporary Myanmar’s education. Second, by
putting lights on critical social symbols of educational realities of
dropout youths, poverty as a powerful social symbol, structured failures
in formal schooling as educational symbol and cultural symbol of
benevolence were found the most powerful cultural symbol that
underlay conditions their life choices. Particularly, in a liminal space
and time for the young migrants, the concept of Sedana (Dana) and
Anade (Ana) – which captures the essence of benevolence and
generosity plays critical socio-cultural foundations that underlines the
interplays between inner process and outer process of liminality.
Therefore, third, being in liminal stage, not in ritual state in a traditional
society, its migrant youth may not be able to have space to return due to
their Structural Inferiority and Outsiderhoods. No matter how exciting
and glamorous the initial arrival of a big city looked, the migrant youth
workers are likely to be able to re-integrated or re-incorporated or
simply fallen into the further cracks without further education, learning
and skill development in fastest growing city of Yangon.
It argues that the unique mechanism of Sedana (Dana) and Anade
(Ana) plays critical elements of day-to-day conceptualisation of their
lives and education in the past, current and future. It is argued that the
participating youths in the research have shown that the cultural
mechanism of ignoring and transcending the difficulties are deep-rooted
in the acceptance of power. This is embedded in their perceptions,
behaviours and choices of education, employment and margination. In
other words, youth themselves semi-voluntarily accept the everyday
power and authority which take away any educational opportunities
from those who are legible for public education.
The research depicts that transitions of Yangon’s migrant youth’s
workers are relational and multi-faceted, rather than fixed and linear
than theorists or policy specialist expects. And their imagined better life
with filled with learning opportunities in the city in liminality as wholly
emancipatory. This thesis explores that what happens in the process of
changes of young migrant workers in the shifting economic-learning,
socio-cultural –learning nexus. Since the first democratic election in
2010 and the new government introduced in 2015, there are growing
markets, more opportunities for youth employment, followed by
urbanization and notable international and internal migration. With the
long desired wind of democratization and social changes, youths' choice
of remaining in malfunctioning public schools and leaving for new job
opportunities was a multi-dimensional choice.
At the time of democratically elected government’s reform
accompanied with major education reform, it welcomes that education,
more importantly the problems of dropout, stared taken seriously for the
first time in thirty years. In this context, it is the precious opportunity
that education reform embraces the quality education and lifelong
learning for All. Providing more equitable and flexible education
learning in both public schooling and communities only can start from
understanding very real context lives and learning of school dropouts.
No matter how society calls school dropouts - Failures, Underachievers
or Outliers, the thesis offer both academic and real life time narratives
from the school dropouts who have a lot of lessons for the upcoming
education reform of transitional Myanmar.


Key Words: Myanmar, education, lifelong learning, anthropology of
education, liminality, youth migrant workers, dropout
 
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